Francis Hwang is an artist, writer, and software engineer. His earlier artwork includes “The Unauthorized iPod U2 vs. Negativland Special Edition”, in which he combined a U2 iPod Special Edition with Negativland’s back catalog and auctioned the result online; and “firmament.to”, which uses the Google Web API to turn any HTML page into a free-associated index for the rest of the web. His writing on technology and culture has appeared in Spin, Wired, ArtByte, and FEED Magazine. An active member of the Ruby community, he has spoken at the International Ruby Conference and currently serves as a technical lead on free software projects such as Ruby-DBI and the object-relational mapping library Lafcadio. He lives in Brooklyn with one roommate, two computers, and two cats.